Marianne Bitler is a Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of California, Davis; a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research; and a Research Fellow at IZA. She received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1998. Her research focuses on the effects of the US social safety net on poverty, income, human capital, and health; economics of the family; economics of education; and health economics.
Dr. Guyer’s research focuses on the behavioral and neural mechanisms that may underlie the way that adolescents think and feel. One overarching question throughout her research is how does attentional focus modulate the brain circuitry involved in emotional responding?
Erin Hamilton received her degree in Sociology from the University of Texas, Austin in 2009. Her current research investigates the social and demographic sources of international migration from Mexico to the United States.
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Jacob Hibel received his degree in Sociology and Demography from Pennsylvania State University in 2009. His research focuses on the causes and consequences of childhood educational inequalities, including those related to poverty, disability, race/ethnicity, immigrant generation status, and spatial segregation.
Michal Kurlaender’s work focuses on education policy and evaluation, particularly practices that address existing racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequality at various stages of the educational attainment process.
Ross A. Thompson’s research focuses on the applications of developmental research to public policy concerns, including school readiness and its development, early childhood investments, and early mental health.
The official poverty rate is 13.5 percent, based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2015 estimates. That year, an estimated 43.1 million Americans lived in poverty according to the official measure. According to supplemental poverty measure, the poverty rate was 14.3 percent.
The U.S. Census Bureau defines “deep poverty” as living in a household with a total cash income below 50 percent of its poverty threshold. According to the Census Bureau, in 2015 19.4 million people lived in deep poverty. Those in deep poverty represented 6.1 percent of the total population and 45 percent of those in poverty.
Un salario mínimo es el salario más bajo que empleadores pueden legalmente pagar a su empleados. La primer ley del salario mínimo fue promulgada en 1894 en Nueva Zelandia.
Al aprobar del Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), el salario mínimo en Estados Unidos fue inicialmente establecida a $0.25 por hora para trabajadores cubierto. Desde entonces, se aumentó 22 veces—recientemente, en julio del 2009, a $7.25 por hora.
En 2013, 45.3 millones de personas eran pobres. La mayoría de estas personas que viven debajo del índice federal de la pobreza no trabajan. Según los datos del Bureau of Labor Statistics, solo 10.5 millones o 23 por ciento de los pobres eran “trabajadores pobres.”
Desde que fue instituido en 1938, el salario mínimo federal ha establecido un piso mínimo para salarios. Aunque no todos los trabajadores son elegibles, ofrece un mínimo de ingresos para los trabajadores que son menos pagados.
A minimum wage is the lowest wage that employers may legally pay to workers. The first minimum wage law was enacted in 1894 in New Zealand.
With the passage of The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), the U.S. minimum wage was initially set at $0.25 per hour for covered workers. Since then, it has been raised 22 separate times–most recently, in July 2009, to $7.25 an hour.
The U.S.D.A.’s Economic Research Service monitors the extent and severity of food insecurity in U.S. households through a supplement to the Current Population Survey. Responses to a series of 18 questions are used to determine whether a household is food insecure.
The official poverty statistics do not track individuals or households over time so there are no official data on poverty spells.
Despite the lack of official data, other surveys do provide the ability to track poverty status over time. Two recent studies have used differing data sources and methods to provide some insight into the characteristics of poverty spells.
In 2014, about 1.3 million U.S. workers age 16 and over earned exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Another 1.7 million had wages below the federal minimum. Together these workers make up 4 percent of all hourly paid workers.
The “working poor” are people who spend 27 weeks or more in a year in the labor force either working or looking for work but whose incomes fall below the poverty level. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, about 9.5 million of people who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force were poor. That year, the working poor comprised 6.3 percent of all individuals in the labor force.
In 2015, poverty rates across the four Census geographic regions ranged from 11.7 percent in the Midwest, 12.4 percent in the Northeast, 13.3 percent in the West and 15.3 percent in the South. Because of the South’s largest share of the total U.S. population, it has the largest number of people who live in poverty compared to any other region.